Opatch for Oracle WebLogic 12c or Oracle Fusion Middlware

Those of you who blog will know that the most useful postings are the ones that you lookup yourself now and then. This one I was pulling out of my virtual class room drawer several times when asked by customers.

opatch webcast

Quite a while ago I did a webcast about the new patching utility opatch (read the original Oracle opatch documentation for 12.2.1 here). Opatch is now used with Oracle WebLogic Server 12c but also with Oracle Fusion Middleware products such as service bus and SOA suite.

P.S. opatch is of course covered in my latest Oracle WebLogic Server 12c book.

 

Oracle Service Bus 12.2.1 Training Course

I provided a customer specific hands-on training for a dozen SOA architects of one Germany biggest companies. Another successful Oracle Features and Showstoppers training course.
This time we covered Oracle Service Bus 12.2.1, including all the new and cool features such as dynamic domain value maps, JDeveloper 12.2.1, pipeline templates, dynamic validation, end-to-end REST, JSON payloads, the new XQuery mapper with XQuery modules, clustering, Oracle Fusion Middleware Control, and much much more.

thanks to everyone who attended!

osb12c kurs

Quick Tip: Change OSB 12c Domain Value Maps (DVM) in Service Bus Console

Other people have written and explained the usage of Domain Value Maps (DVMs) in Oracle Service Bus already: They can be generated easily within JDeveloper and shared with SCA components of SOA Suite. Previously SOA Composer could be used to modify them.

Here is quick tip: You can now change (or even create!) them within service bus console easily at runtime. So open your service bus console, e.g. from http://localhost:7101/servicebus. Note that the previous /sbconsole is now /servicebus and comes with a fresh look. The old URL is still working but deprecated and should not be used anymore.

dvm

Btw there were other XQuery based approaches that also allowed DVM to be used and changed at runtime, but the built-in DVMs are easiest and most convenient.

Bug: Wrong Message Type and XQuery Expressions in OSB 12.2.1 /servicebus Console for Message Based Pipelines

Environment

I am using the latest download of JDeveloper 12.2.1 with the builtin test domain for SOA Suite 12.2.1 and OSB 12.2.1, all running on Java 1.8.0_65_b17 on a RedHat derivative.

Business Service

I created a message based business service based on a simple XML element definition for an Order via an XSD.

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Testing the business service shows the correct test data. Good. Note, that there is an embracing <ord:order> element containing other element such as version or ID.

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Pipeline

A pipeline is defined based on the same element.

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Interestingly the pipeline shows a different variable structure, missing out the embracing <ord:order> element.

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So any created XQuery expressions, e.g. for a Log action as seen on the screenshot above will be wrong as well and missing the embracing <ord:order> element. So put it more clear, non of the expression will return anything meaningful.

Conclusion / Impact

IMHO this is a severe issue if confirmed. Let’s face it. OSB was never easy but a rock solid product. For almost a decade I solved problems by telling people to stay calm and carefully looking and the test data, the elements, and the namespaces provided by OSB testing console. Now this seems to be broken.

Workaround

You can manually fix your XQuery expression. Possibly this also relates to another OSB 12.2.1 bug I blogged about earlier.

Tiny Improvement, Big Difference: Revert Production / Development Mode in WebLogic 12.2.1 Admin Console

A lot of people felt it was never right that you could not go back from production mode to development mode in WebLogic admin console. You alway could change it using WLST or overwriting it with a startup parameter or modifying config.xml.

With WebLogic 12.2.1 this has changed. You can change it using the admin console now.

2016-01-19_09-50-55

 

 

 

 

Bug: Typed One Way Pipeline in Oracle Service Bus / OSB 12.2.1

When creating a Service Bus pipeline in JDeveloper 12.2.1 for Oracle Service Bus 12.2.1, based on a typed, one-way business service (either one way WSDL based, or Messaging Service with XML request and XSD type with reply NONE business service) the pipeline won’t correctly use the request message type. It’s annoying because you cannot easily create expressions based on the request type, such as drilling open the $body variable, e.g. for an Order containing a shipping ID. All that is displayed within the pipeline is $body.

This happens although the pipeline configuration displays the correct XSD, eg. OrderType.xsd and the correct Type, eg. OrderType.

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I am quite surprised because this is not a very unusual use case. Anyway I couldn’t find a work around for JDeveloper 12.2.1 (let me know if you know one!). Interestingly, testing a proxy service based on the business service works all right (so maybe the bug slipped in when the pipeline construct was separated from the proxy service? just guessing.)

It is possible to work with the good old Service Bus web console /sbconsole. There everything is fine, i.e. the correct structure of the request message is displayed. The working Service Bus console is another indication that the way JDeveloper does it is broken.

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Don’t get me wrong. IMHO using the web console is not an acceptable solution.

WebLogic 12.2.1 RESTful Management

WebLogic 12.2.1 is out since Oracle Open World 2015 and comes with a new RESTful management interface.

  • RESTful management for 12.2.1 is a rewritten and different implementation.
    The previous two implementations supported only a small subset of JMX attributes, you could only read them, URLs and versioning were different.
  • The new URL format is:
     http://server:port/management/weblogic/latest/...

    if you scripts still contain /wls/ you are using the previous format.

  • Access to all WebLogic JMX MBeans and attributes is supported now.
  • Unlike in the previous version, RESTful management is turned on per default.
  • Unlike in the previous version, RESTful management is available on admin and managed servers.
  • The URL syntax is modelled after the WLST syntax (WLST tutorial  in this screencast).
  • A simple HTTP GET example (just type it into your browser), e.g. to retrieve name and state runtime values for a managed server named surf1:
    http://localhost:7001/management/weblogic/latest/domainRuntime/serverLifeCycleRuntimes/surf1?links=none&fields=name,state
    Response:
    { "name": "surf1", "state": "RUNNING" }
  • Another example to create a new server surf7 using curl:
    curl –v --user weblogic:welcome1 \
     -H X-Requested-By:MyClient \
     -H Accept:application/json \
     -H Content-Type:application/json \
     -d "{ name: 'surf7' } "
     -X POST \http://localhost:7001/management/weblogic/latest/edit/servers
  • Within the /edit subtree, edit sessions are implicit.
  • To manually start/cancel/activate edit sessions:
    /edit/changeManager/startEdit|cancelEdit|activate
  • Unlike the previous version of the RESTful management where HTTP OPTIONS was used to get a JSON form of possible values e.g. when creating a ressource, now /ressourceCreateForm is used, e.g. you can retrieve the values to create a server with the following HTTP GET:
    http://localhost:7001/management/weblogic/latest/edit/serverCreateForm
  • You can issue bulk requests, which runs a search of a set of specific JSON nodes and returns the results at once. As shown in the following example, an HTTP POST operation to the following URL
    http://localhost:7001/management/weblogic/latest/domainRuntime/search

    and using the following JSON as payload:
    json query

 

More?

More interesting facts about the RESTful management interface:

  • The RESTful management interface comes with very good error messages if something goes wrong.
    However, if  you try to update a property that cannot be overwritten, e.g. the server name of a managed server, it will be silently ignored. This is intended behaviour.
  • In the curl example above all(?)  -H options could be omitted (if you were a sloppy person, but I guess you aren’t). This is true for all HTTP verbs except HTTP POST, then X-Requested-By header is required to prevent cross-site request  forgery (CSRF).
  • You could also get access to all WebLogic MBeans and attributes using the highly popular open source Jolokia, as I explained already in 2012. Jolokia works for every major application server and also supports bulk requests. Ever wondered where the chili on my WebLogic book comes from?
    Jolokia also involves using real MBean names and is therefore more complicated for the typical WebLogic user. Also it involves adding Jolokia as a JVM agent, proxy, or WebLogic deployment. So most typical WebLogic users will be better off using the built-in RESTful management interface.
    I was planting some real spicy Jolokia this year. Two tiny crumbs of dried Jolokia is enough for a Chili con Carne with 500g of meat serving at least 3 people. Give it a try!

More about WebLogic 12.2.1?

Some more examples of the RESTful management, and also 11 additional “things” about WebLogic 12.2.1 are shown in a presentation I’ve done at Oracle Open World 2015:

SOALatam Conference 2015 in Lima Review

whole_group

Now that the SOALatam Conference 2015 in Lima is over and work slows down a bit because Christmas is approaching it’s time for a summary. To conclude it was one of the best conferences I attended in 2015. You may ask why I favour SOALatam over the others and there are several reasons:

  • It’s vendor independent.
  • It’s cross technology.
  • Although it is cross technology, it is focusing on new developments, such as Docker, microservices and API Management.
  • It’s small but high quality. Good to fit into one single day!
  • There are brilliant people speaking from major companies such as ThoughtworksS&P Solutions but also independently working folks like Thomas Erl and me :-)
  • There is a max of 2 parallel tracks (and one is more business oriented), so you never miss out a lot.

audience

I personally enjoyed it because I met a new bunch of colleagues. My presentation was about Linux Containers Docker: Thorough and Critical Overview, covering Docker security, Docker Swarm, Docker Compose and Docker Networking including some predictions for the future. Also I discussed some challenges that show up in a Docker environment when running non 12-factor applications such as Oracle WebLogic Server.

me_presenting

 

DOAG Conference 2015 – It’s a wrap!

 

20151117_175947DOAG Conference is completed and it was a good one. I did two presentation, both are available for download now from the official DOAG site and from slidshare:

Also I enjoyed meeting my top 3 customers at the conference, attending some great sessions about Hadoop Security, API management and Dueck’s keynote (elaborating about how to treat techies more like cats than dogs, instead of talking about volkswagening). Also, for the first time we had an Oracle ACE dinner organized by Björn Rost and Martin Klier – thanks to OTN!

 

Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 18.10.54

JDK 8 and WebLogic 12.2.1

WebLogic 12.2.1 is available since Open World 2015.

Some news regarding Java and WebLogic 12.2.1:

  • javaWebLogic 12.2.1 requires Java 8 (JDK 8) as a runtime.
  • WebLogic 12.1.3 can be used with Java 7 or Java 8. Using WebLogic 12.1.3 with Java 7 caused warnings because of the permspace settings in the WebLogic start scripts. Permspace is removed from JDK 8, so also these warnings are gone now with WebLogic 12.2.1 and JDK8.
  • JDK 8 comes with Nashorn JavaScript engine. Try the jjs command line tool.
  • Main reason from a development perspective to upgrade: WebLogic 12.2.1 finally supports Java EE 7.
  • WebLogic 12.2.1 makes use of changes in the JVM. In JDK 8u40 a new feature was introduced to the JVM called resource management. Together with the G1 garbage collector WebLogic 12.2.1 uses this commercial feature to track resource usage (CPU, retained heap, # open file descriptors). It is enabled as follows:
    java   -XX:+UnlockCommercialFeatures  -XX:+ResourceManagement ...

Interview: The (Emerging) Role of the Cloud Architect

I did an interview in San Francisco hosted by Bob Rhubart with some well known folks of the industry including Sten Vesterli, Ronald Luttikhuizn, Simon Haslam, Arturo Viveros, and Ron Batra about the role of the cloud architect.

IMHO we won’t see many people with the job title Cloud Architect on their business card. It’s increasingly important and disruptive tech, every architect, team leader and CIO has to deal with it, however it’s tech that you as a professional have to understand. The cloud changes a lot if you do it right, read my article about cloud benefits.

Enjoy listening to the interview.bob

 

Oracle WebLogic / Coherence / Cloud SIG in MUC 2015 (German only)

WebLogic / Coherence / JCS SIG

I will be still travelling in Peru after delivering a presentation for the leading API management, microservices, and container conference SOALatam  in Lima, so I won’t be able to attend, but there is an interesting special interest group (SIG) meeting happening in Munich Germany if you want to know more about what was announced at Open World 2015. You can register here for the SIG.

DOAG 2015

Even before the SIG, if you are attending DOAG conference in Nürnberg this year don’t miss out my presentations about WebLogic 12.2.1 and WebLogic with Docker.

 

Next Stop: SOALatam Conference Lima / Peru

Banner-Azul-SOAConference

Just back from Oracle Open Word 2015 in San Francisco, it’s a great honor for me that my presentation Docker Containers: A Thorough and Critical Overview was accepted for the the SOALatam conference in Lima.

Most presentation will be in Spanish, I will the only non-latino speaker apart from Thomas Erl.

I am looking forward to a world class conference in Lima and to meeting friends such as Tabata Jessica Pérez as well as Rolando Carrasco and Arturo Viveros from the SOA myth buster team. Thomas Erl is the keynote speaker and it’s also a good opportunity to win a top notch computer science text book :-)

Heaps of reasons for a trip to Lima. CU there!

soalatam2tw

Oracle Open World 2015

#OOW15 Wrap

Oracle Open World is finished and IMHO it was great! What I particularly enjoyed was that Oracle this year delivered a lot of what was announced last year. The cloud offerings seem to be heading the right way (Oracle uses industry accepted terms now when talking about cloud, concludes to my definitions and delivers across IaaS, PaaS and SaaS). In addition Oracle Fusion Middleware 12.2.1, in particular WebLogic 12.2.1 is out with multi tenancy micro containers, exportable partitions, a brand new REST management interface, new JDK support, new Java EE 7 support, policies, actions and true elasticity.

WebLogic Server 12.2.1 new features slides

The slides for my “12 Things You Should Know About Oracle WebLogic Server 12.2.1” presentation are available on slideshare:

Oracle Open World Expert Session: WebLogic 12cR2 (12.2.1)

iamspeaking oow15I will be presenting an expert session together with Dave Cabelus from Oracle WebLogic product management about the newest WebLogic 12c at Oracle Open World 2015.

Do you know about WebLogic 12 resource management policies for heap that can trigger a slow action? WebLogic’s microcontainer for multi tenancy? Scale up actions for elastic clusters? createForms for the RESTful management APIs? why Docker is almost zero overhead, how Docker works with WebLogic and that it is officially certified by Oracle?

Come and see us, Tuesday 18h.

IaaS Competition: It’s not only about the pricing.

IaaS has become much much more than just compute on demand with an API and pay per use. Interesting to note that Oracle cloud announced to match AWS IaaS prices for their customers which is a cool and bold move. Obviously this will help to keep Oracle customers on the Oracle cloud.

AWS IaaS actually is more. You can have cheap reserved instances and even cheaper spot instances. Today AWS announced spot instances with a block duration for jobs that need to be finished but run economically. Good to see that competition keeps bringing new features. Remember when many years ago I wrote about the benefits for customers that will be caused by cloud computing? Nowadays this has become a fact.

ec2_payment_with_block_1

There are more public cloud advantages and features you should know.

DOAG Conference 2015 Middleware & Volkswagening

DOAG Conference 2015 in Nürnberg is getting closer. This is a great opportunity to hear about what is announced at Oracle Open World 2015, mingle with peers and enjoy this years’ invited speaker Gunter Dueck. He published an essay about volkswagening (german only) that is worth reading. Reminds a bit about the graphic card producers that optimized their card specifically for the benchmarks used by IT magazines a couple of years ago. Anyway, Gunter Dueck is worth listening to – another reason to attend DOAG conference!

I usually tell German IT professionals and even attendees at international workshops that this is the must-do event if you are even only remotely working with Oracle technology. It’s great because it’s full of Oracle tech.  Although it’s not only about the Oracle red opinion because there are lots of consulting companies, individuals and people like me presenting :-).

dueck

Make sure you don’t miss out the two presentations that I will deliver this year about WebLogic 12c features and about Docker. Also think about doing your own presentation maybe next year. You will get a free entry ticket (not mentioning all the fame due to the presentation).

doag card

The Difference: Docker vs. Virtualization

Technical Basics

Docker is an open source container technology that became immensely popular in 2014. Docker itself is written in Google’s programming language Go and supported on all major Linux distributions (RedHat, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Ubuntu etc.). The technical underpinnings are not completely new, Docker leverages Linux kernel features for containers such as cgroups and namespaces. So even though Docker itself is relatively new, the underlying container technology is an established technology.

It is reported that Google starts 2 000 000 000 every week for search, mail, etc.

Virtualization versus Container

It’s important to distinguish Linux containers and Docker from traditional and more common type 1 or type 2 hypervisors. Type 1 hypervisors provide server virtualization on bare metal hardware, whereas Type 2 hypervisors typically provide desktop virtualization based on an existing operating system as shown below.

Screen Shot 2015-09-21 at 10.44.55

 

In contrast to popular virtualization technologies, Docker containers run the host’s Linux kernel, so the required time to startup a container is only in the range of milliseconds. Still containers have their own incremental files system, where layers are reused across containers. In addition, every container has its own network stack, therefore its own IP-address, and its own process space.

Another View: Your Data Center’s Degree of Cloud

Here is another view that I just developed to describe a customer’s level of cloud. I used this view because quite often a public cloud is just regarded as an “outsourced datacenter”, however there are many steps in between the two extremes. Sometimes it’s easier to approach the cloud computing topic from the classical perspective of virtualization.

Anything you would like to add?

Screen Shot 2015-09-18 at 20.39.08

I recommend to compare what Amazon, Google or Oracle public cloud offers based on the table above compared to your on premise DC.

12 Public Cloud Benefits and Features You Should Know

20150311_114235The last few years I spent a quite a bit of time talking about public clouds. When I published my cloud computing book, public clouds were mostly still believed to be a hype. Availability, security, persistence of data, and much much more was questioned.

Today only few IT professionals are stuck with this old school thinking. The major public clouds are a superset of what is provided by a classical data centers.

What features would you check for when looking at a potential cloud provider? Does your data center offer every feature and service listed below?

  1. All IT in the cloud is software. There is an API for everything. The whole data center is a set of APIs. This includes load balancers, servers, storage, databases, application servers, API gateways, firewalls, storage, etc.
  2. Short term capacity is very cheap.
  3. Since capacity is cheap, typically you don’t update or redeploy in the cloud, instead you spin up new immutable servers.
  4. Changing your hardware costs nothing. If you find out or assume that your application will run better on high-CPU instances instead of high-memory instances you can simply swap.
  5. Availability comes with no extra cost. You can place two instances in two fully redundant data centers for the same cost as placing two instances in the same data center.
  6. Also parallelism comes with no extra cost. Using 1000 instances for 1h costs as much as using 1 instance for 1000 hours. You’ve got a massively parallel supercomputer at your hands.
  7. You save the time for capacity planning since capacity is available on demand.
  8. Capacity planning still makes sense for predicting future costs.
  9. Procurement happens within seconds or minutes.
  10. You don’t pay for unused resources. Scaling down reduces your costs.
  11. You can put IT resources close to the customer location where they are needed since the public cloud will be globally available.
  12. Cost for resources in the cloud used to drop by around 30% every year. Long term projects with constant resource usage will cost less every year.

You care to disagree?

OTN Tour Latin America 2015: Colombia

Cali

Screen Shot 2015-09-07 at 22.28.39

 

col goldColombia was my last stop on the OTN tour, yet it was the country I was waiting for. I had good memories about the country from many years ago when I was backpacking there and it was a pleasure to see how everything has changed.

I decided to take a hotel in the north which is closer to the some shopping malls and various museums. At night after arrival I got a local SIM card which was a breeze and cost less than 10€ for 1 GB of data. First day I nipped out, crossed the main street to the Alcaldía and headed straight to the Museo del Oro Calima (Gold Museum).

The conference was organized by charming Giovanna Bohorquez Paez and her team from the Asociación de Usuarios Oracle de Colombia. Everything went swimmingly and I felt flattered to give a Docker and WebLogic presentation at the Universidad Autónoma de Occidente. Due to some changes there was no time left for my 12 Things about WebLogic 12c presentation but feel free to download the presentation slides. For the first time I had the pleasure to meet Mauricio Naranjo in person. During the coffee break we had a exotic looking but surprisingly well tasting drink called Champús (check this wiki link for a pic!).

Altogether I enjoyed the conference a lot. It was a great atmosphere, people came to ask questions and to have their pictures taken together with us. To respect their privacy I put a picture of us below.

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At the end, I decided to stay an extra day, visited some lookouts and local bars with a friend who also gave me a lift to the mountain range called KM18. Calenos love to go there because it is much cooler, so it is really crowded on Sundays. There I had an even stranger but also even tastier (!!) drink called agua de panela (sweet hot drink made of sugar cane) with savory cheese in it. Loved it!

 

 

OTN Tour Latin America 2015: Ecuador

Quito

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Quito first of all surprises by its altitude. The altitude of the city of Quito is pretty much the height the highest mountain in Germany (2880m). I was absolutely looking forward to be in Quito, since the last time I was there was more than 20 years ago when I was backpacking through South America.

20150824_101946For me the event was another wonderful hotel and another perfectly organized conference with a surprisingly high number of attendees! Both my sessions were well attended, I’d guess up to 80 people, and there was even live translation provided for the attendees! Also I liked the idea of two parallel streams only, so at the end we had more attendees in each stream. In my Docker presentation I focused even more on a longer live demonstration accompanied  by a few slides only.

Paola, our charming host did everything to make the event a great success. She invited us for a guided city trip so we had a chance to see the equator, the historic center and Panecillo, the mountain overlooking Quito and the city center. At night we went again to Panecillo for a excellent dinner and a view of the city’s lights.

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Oracle ACE Directors: Heli, Frank, Ronald, Deiby

Btw, I uploaded the WebLogic with Docker and 12 new features of Oracle WebLogic Server 12c presentation slides to slideshare.

OTN Tour Latin America 2015: Panama

Panama City

panama

Panama was another interesting place to be. Very few Europeans I know have ever been to Panama. The trip from the airport started with a glimpse of Panama’s surprising skyline. Pleasant enough I was located in the 29th floor (!) of a downtown hotel.

20150821_095650The conference was a bit further away towards the canal at another hotel next to one of the biggest shopping malls in the known universe.

I had the last slot and since we were running late, people volunteered to stay a bit longer for my Oracle WebLogic and Docker presentation.

Saturday we had a day off. Edgardo Sanchez from the local user group took us on a trip to the Panama canal and Casco Antiguo (the historic center of town). I am not a good shopper, usually I am buying nothing at all, but at the end I bought a Panama coffee mug as a souvenir.

Btw, I uploaded the WebLogic with Docker and 12 new features of Oracle WebLogic Server 12c presentation slides.

 

OTN Tour Latin America 2015: El Salvador

Screen Shot 2015-09-04 at 13.07.53

San Salvador

In San Salvador I had the best hotel experience. I got upgraded for no particular reason to the executive lounge which provides a view to the local volcano (and free soft drinks).

Also I met Alex Gorbatchev from Python for the first time in person. The conference was at a military club in a very relaxed and safe atmosphere. Anyway, I felt a bit like the scene in the Monty Python clip with the comfy chair since it was really hot and we faced a splendid swimming pool without having the time and/or possibility to go for a swim.

Screen Shot 2015-09-04 at 16.38.06

Again I did two presentations one about Docker in general and its usage for WebLogic with  and one about 12 new features of Oracle WebLogic Server 12c both with great audience feedback and participation. After the session there was a high number of people asking for the slides and trying to get some answers on additional topics. My impression was that a smallish but very interested group of people is working with WebLogic and that everybody was curious about Docker.

Same as in Guatemala the conference ended with a picture taking session :-) Heli from Finland has another blog posting about the fun part of our trip.

san salvadorScreen Shot 2015-09-04 at 13.08.10

OTN Tour Latin America 2015: Guatemala

Guatemala City

I attended this year’s OTN Latin America 2015 tour and travelled across 5 countries.

badges

Guatemala was one of the places I always wanted to visit so I arrived a day early on own expenses. My flight was via FRA and Houston and I arrived at GUA City an hour and half before midnight. My suitcase did not. It took an hour until somebody from UA showed up at the airport so I missed Deiby from the local user group who volunteered to pick me up at the airport on a Friday night.

antigua

The following day I did a trip to the historic city of Antigua, the old capital including a guided walk through the center and an easy walk up to Cerro de la Cruz which offers a breathtaking view to the surrounding volcanoes and Antigua.

The conference itself was an excellent experience (thanks to Deiby Gomez and his colleagues!), perfectly organized and coordinated with a great mixture and huge number of local and international speakers. For the first time I met Daniel Morgan, Anton Els (see his posting for the fantastic boring / exciting pic we took!), Edward Roske, Björn Rost and Jeff Davies in person. One of the cool things of an OTN tour is that you can listen also to a lot of great people so I attended most of Dan’s and Jeff’s session but unfortunately missed Anton’s sessions.

My own session was well attended. I guess that over 100 people showed up which was a big surprise to me! My Spanish is slightly above Tarzan level, still I decided to give the introduction in Spanish and the rest in English, which on the one hand side was confusing for the live interpreter and on the other hand side entertaining for the audience. At the end of the day we had a lovely speakers dinner playing a bit of golf while having excellent food.

gua

You can download the slides for my presentations on Slideshare:

12 Things you should know about WebLogic 12c

WebLogic 12c and Docker (includes a basic Docker introduction)